Just war theory

Part A: Question 1.

Just war theories are applied in an attempt to differentiate unjustifiable and justifiable application of organized military force. They explore the conception of how utilization of arms or military force could be restrained or restricted, made humane and intended to establish prevailing justice and peace. They address the morality behind using force by breaking it in two parts.   Jus ad Bellum when is it right to resort to military force and Jus in Bello acceptable conducts in resorting to armed force. Jus in Bello could be applied In instances of war where military activity is directed towards civilians like it was during the second world war where Britain bombed Germany’s cities as a way of breaking its will to fight. The three principles involved of Jus in Bello can be applied to direct how war combatants should act. The principle of distinction prohibits bombing of residential areas or acts of terrorism against civilians, war should only be directed only towards enemy combatants. The principle of proportionality dictates that military attacks objectives should not be launched with the knowledge that it will incidentally cause excessive harm to civilians. The principle of military necessity directs that minimum force military to avoid unnecessary and excessive death harm or destruction of civilian property. The morality of this strategy is that it protects and reduces the extent of damage caused to civilians in terms of deaths and destruction of property.

Question: 2

According to Michael Walzer the aggression of one state towards another is considered as a moral crime since it constitutes to the bleaching of peace and security. The use of military force against another comprises the violation of the attacked states political sovereignty and integrity. It violates the rights and freedoms of the other state. This means that an act of aggression to that other state challenges its liberty and life hence this is a moral crime. A country engaging in warfare for other reasons apart from self defense commits an act of aggression. According to Walzer a third party is justified to intervene in cases involving acts of aggression between other states in the pursuit of peace and the observation of human rights. A third party may also intervene in order to ensure the observation of international laws governing the harmonious existence between states.

Part B.

Relists view that humanitarian interventions are an infringement to the sovereignty of a state in the pretence of protecting the violation of a human rights. This is because not all infringements or violations are unjust.  They also point out that while humanitarian intervention should be solely aimed at protecting the freedom and welfare of those involved in a crisis, some of the intervening states take these interventions to their advantage since they have their own interests at heart. Realists argue that the ethics involved in humanitarian interventions are not very clear. For instance in relation to the centrality of a state that is considered sovereign in relation to international laws, the ethics does not clearly define the conditions under which humanitarian intervention is legal. Similarly there is no clear definition of the conditions under which it is permissible, morally, to   involve in illegal interventions. The ethics have also not defined when there is moral justification to engage in unilateral intervention (as opposed to collective humanitarian intervention). The ethics do not also answer the question whether justification for intervention only applies during extreme violations like genocides or this also includes the violation of human rights that are persistent. In reference to the previous question, When persistence violation of freedoms and rights comprise  the justification of  a ‘Prima facie’ intervention what are the other conditions that should be satisfied.

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